??????ͽ֮?????롶?۸̡??ıȽϷ???,?Ƚ???ѧ????_ѧ????
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ѧ????רҵ????ѧϰƽ̨????ǰ??λ?ã?ѧ???? > ??ѧ???? > ?Ƚ???ѧ????

??????ͽ֮?????롶?۸̡??ıȽϷ???

ʱ?䣺2019-07-31 ??Դ???ϲ?ʦ??ѧԺѧ?? ???ߣ??????? ??????????8727??

????ժ    Ҫ?? “???????ӷ?Ū????”???ձ???????ѧ???ҽ洨??֮?鱻??ѧ???Ϊ“????”, һ???????˴???????Ʒ??????, 1917??ĩ??1919??ĩ???䴴????????, ????????Ʒ??ʾ????????????????, ??????????׷??; 1919??ĩ?Ժ????䴴???Ƿ???, ????????ƷҲ??ʾ?????????????˿־?Ͳ???, ?????ϳ???ƣ????뵡???ֱ???????????ʱ?ڵ???Ʒ??????ͽ֮?????͡??۸̡?Ϊ?????бȽϷ???, ?Ծ?????ͬ??ԭ??

?????ؼ??ʣ? ??????ͽ֮????; ???۸̡?; ?洨??֮??;

????Abstract????Japanese modern literature writer Ryosuke Akutagawa, who “turned his life around with silver tweezers”, was called a“genius”by the literary circle. He produced a great deal of work in his lifetime. Among them, the end of 1917 to the end of 1919 is his creative soaring period. His works showed his confidence in life and unlimited pursuit of art; after the end of 1919, it was the decadent period of his creation. His works also showed that he was full of fear and restlessness towards life, and full of fatigue and tiredness in spirit. This paper takes the works of the above two periods The Death of the Christian and Mandarin Orange as examples for comparative analysis, respectively, and investigates its similarities and differences and reasons.

????Keyword????The Death of the Christian; Mandarin Orange; Ryosuke Akutagawa;

????һ??????

?????洨??֮????????25?? (1892) 3??1??, ?????ڶ????о????? (?ֶ???????????) ????ԭ??, ????ԭ?????ij??ӡ???Ϊ?????ڳ??곽?³??ճ?ʱ??ȡ????֮?顣????Ϊ???????߸???????, ĸ?׾;???ʧ??, ??????֮??ͱ??͵????д?ͳ?Ľ???????֮??ľ˾˼ҽ洨?ҵ????ӡ????????ļ?ͥ????, ?ر?????Ϊ??ʱ????, ???׾??ܵ???ѧ?ϵĸл?, ????ĸ?׵ľ???ʧ??һ???Ϊ?洨??ѧ?γɵ???Ҫ???ء?????ʱ?????ʶ???????????, ??????ѧҵ?ɼ???ȴ?Ƿdz?????, ??Ϊ???????ѧ????Ѿ???ʼո¶ͷ???ˡ??ڶ̶?ʮ????Ĵ?????????, ?洨???????˴???????Ʒ, ??1914????1927?깲13??Ĵ?????????, ????????148ƪС˵, [1] (P2) ????ѧ???Ϊ“????”??????Ʒ????????Ϊ?̸衢ٽ?䡢ʫ??????ʡ?С˵????, ??Ȼ??????ע?????????????ΪС˵, ??????????Ӧ????Ҫ????????С˵?Ĵ??????档

?????????洨??֮??Ĵ??????ļ??????

?????洨??֮???о?, ???ձ????ڿ?νʢ??, ???????缪?ᆱһ??ܥ???ۡ????????ۡ?ɽ???????ȴ?ҵ??йؽ洨?о?, ?????????д???ѧ?߼???洨?о??Ķ??顣???й?, ?????????洨??֮?????Ʒ½????????????ڱ????Ϸ????????, ???ڽ洨??֮?鼰????Ʒ?о??????IJ??????, 2005??ɽ?????ճ???????Ƴ???һ????????ġ??洨??֮??ȫ????, ??????ֵ??????1921??, ³Ѹ?ͽ??洨??֮????????????ӡ??͡??????š???鵽?й????˺???????, ??Ȼ??ؤ??????????Ҳ?????˽洨??֮???һЩ??Ʒ, ???й?ѧ??Խ洨??֮??Ĺ?עʼ?ղ?????ֱ??1927??, ?洨??֮????ɱ????Ϣ?????й?, ?й?ѧ?????γ???, ?Խ洨??֮?鼰????Ʒ???????????????ǡ???1927—1928????????, ???????ֱ?????־?׷׿??ǽ?????֮????Ʒ?????????Ļ?????????, ???ֽ洨??֮????Ʒ????ѡ???Ⱥ????, ?й??????????洨??֮??ĵ?һ???߳??ڡ?[2] (P45) ???ݵ??????ӡ??洨??Ʒ????????״??һ????һ?ĵ?ͳ??, ??1999??Ϊֹ?洨??Ʒ???????????ĵ?Ϊ?й???[3] (P178??184)

???????????????䡶?洨??֮????й????ݤȉ??ݤι켣??һ??“???????ڽ洨??ѧ??ȫ????”??ָ??, ?ڽ洨??ѧ?о???, ?????о?????Ϊ???԰ѽ洨??֮??Ĵ??????ķ?Ϊ???ڡ????ںͺ???????ʱ??, ??Ҳ???о??߽????Ϊǰ?ںͺ???????ʱ?ڡ?[4] (P15??16) ???ֱ?????ֲ?ͬ???????ŵĴ??????ᆱһ??ܥ???۵Ĺ۵??????????????ᆱһ???ڡ??洨??֮?顷???Խ洨??ǰ???е?8????ƪС˵??Ϊ????, ??Ϊ????Ϊ????8??1?¿??еĵ?????ƪС˵????????ʦ??Ϊֹ, ???ڴӵ??Ķ?ƪС˵????Ӱ????????????13?귢?еĵ??߶?ƪС˵??????ȸ?硷Ϊֹ?????ڽ洨??֮??Ĵ??????ķ???, ܥ???????????????洨??֮????———??????Ϊ?????ҡ???, ???????²???:“????Ϊ?????Ͽ??Խ??? (?洨??֮??) ????????Ʒ?ֳ?????ʱ?ڡ?ǰ?ڴӡ????ӡ???ʼ, ???????ࡷ??ij?յĴ?ʯ?ڲ????????????䡷??????ͽ֮???????Ͼ??Ļ????????????С???, ?ٵ?????????????Ϊֹ?Ĵ???ʱ?ڡ??????ʼ?ڱ???????, ??????һ??ء????????Ÿ??İ????????????????????ɽ????????ͯ??, ???????֡?Ϊֹ?Ĵ???ʱ?? (????12??———?Ѻ?2??) ??”ܥ???۴ӽ洨?Ĵ??????ת??Ϊ??Ҫ????, ?Դ???5????????11??Ϊ?洨??ѧ??ǰ??, ????12?????Ѻ?2??Ϊ???ڡ????ᆱһ????8????ƪС˵????????Ⱥ?Ϊ???????л???, ??ܥ??????Ҫ?ӽ洨?Ĵ??????ת??Ϊǰ?ں??ڻ??????ݡ????, ?????????Ϊ???洨??֮??Ĵ??????ķ?Ϊ???ڡ????ڡ?????????Ϊһ???????, ??????????ʼ?ں?ʱֹ?ں?ʱ??һ????, ???ҵ????Ÿ?????ͬ???????ݼ??ᆱһ?Ļ???????, ??Ϊ“????8??3????????13??12??Ϊ?洨??ѧ??????”??[4] (P17)

??????ͽ֮?????롶?۸̡??ıȽϷ???

???????????????????Ͻ??洨??֮???1914????1927?깲13??Ĵ??????ķ?Ϊ????ʱ??, ????1917??ĩ??ǰ?ǽ洨??֮?鴴??????, 1917????1919??????䴴????????, ??1919??5?¡????ӡ??ķ???????????䴴?????Ƿ??ڡ?

?????????????ڵ???Ʒ??????ͽ֮????

????(һ) ??????ͽ֮??????Ʒ????

??????????ͽ֮?????????ڴ???7?? (1918??) 9?ºŵġ???????ѧ????־?ϡ???????ͽ֮?????ǽ洨??֮?????Ʒ?б??о?????????????Ʒ֮һ, Ҳ?ǽ洨??֮?鴴???????ڵĴ?????Ʒ֮һ??

??????Ʒ??Ҫ????????Ľ̻?ʥ¶???ǽ???????????????׿, ??һ????????ͯת??֮????????, ?Ǹ????ļᶨ֮?ˡ?????, ?????м?ɡ?̵?Ů????????, ????????????, ???˽???Ϊ??????׿??Ϊ??????, ????׿???̻????ʥ¶???ǽ???, ?ڽ?ͷ???????????֡?ɡ??֮Ů????һŮӤ֮???һ??, ?ڳ?????﷢????һ?????, ??ɡ??һ???ӳ???֮??, ɡ??֮Ů???ż???Ӥ??????˯?????ڡ???Դ??, ??????????ʿ֮??, ????ΰ?????ڵ??????????????޲?, ????ʱͦ?????ֵ?????????׿, ?????̷ܲ??????ش????֮??, ?ȳ???ɡ??֮Ů??????ŮӤ?????????Լ?Ҳ????????????, ??????˿????ʱ, ɡ??֮Ů?????, ?Լ?????֮Ů?????ھ????ͽ֮?????????????֤????????׿???????, ???????ͬʱ“????׿??ǰ?·???????֮??, ??Ȼ¶????????˫??”[5]??֤????????׿?Ǵ????޹??ġ?ͨ????һ“ɲ?ǵĸж?”??????׿??ʥ????

????(??) ??????ͽ֮?????Ĵ???????

??????????ͽ֮?????????Ĵ??????? (1918??) , ???ڽ洨??˵, ???????ڴ????ϻ??????????϶???һ??ת??֮?ꡣ?ϰ????ȥ?˴?1916???ѧ??ҵ??ʼ??һֱ???????ν̵ĺ???????ѧУί?н?Աһְ, ???????ÿ????????, ͬʱ???1916??ʼ?????˻?Լ?ĉV?????ӽ?顣??Ϊ????ÿ?????????Ա??, ?̵?һ????Ʒ???????䡷֮?󻹴????ˡ?֩??˿??????Ұ?????ȼ?????

??????ǰ????, ?洨ӭ????“һ???????Ҹ???ʱ??”??[5]??????ͽ֮?????????ǽ洨???????????Ʒ?Ĵ???, ??????Ϊ?洨??ƪС˵?еĽ??????ڡ?????ͽ֮?????? (һ) ?????һ??:

????ȴ˵??Ů?ӵ???ƽ, ????֮??һ????֪???????Ǻε?????Ŷ???֮, ????ɲ?Ǽ?ĸж?, ʵǧ??????, ???????󡣺???һ??, ??֮????????ããҹ??, ??һ??????, ???³???, ????????ڲ???, ???????֮????????˵??, ֪????׿֮???, ?????֪??һ??????

?????Դ?, ?ƾ?Ӣ?????????????۵?????, ??Ϊ?Ⲣ????“?ڽ̵ĸж?”, ??ָ??“???ŵ?????, ??????ν??????????, ????ǿ??????????????????ġ????ĵ?ʱ??ѻ?????ŵ?޷?ӵ???ܹ?????ȼ????????Ϊֹ?ġ???ʵ??˲??, ??ν????????ֻ??????ããȻ?Ļ?ɫ?羰???ˡ?”???ǽ洨???????ۡ?[6] (P66)

????(??) ??????ͽ֮??????????

????С˵??ƪ?????????쳤?롶Cuia do Fecador?? (??????) :“??????????????, ????????, ??֮???, ?޾?֮??, ?????λö???”?͡?Imitatione Chnisti?? (??ͽ????¼) :“Ψ?????????, ????֪ʥ???в???˼??֮???”???λ????洨??֮?顶????ͽ֮??????Ϊ?洨??֮??һϵ?л???????Ʒ?еĴ?????֮һ, ???ܽ洨??ѧ?о??߹?ע???洨?ڻ?????ϵ????Ʒ?в?û??ȫ????дѳ?????⡣????, ?ڡ?????ͽ֮??????, ????ر????˽洨?Ի?????ѳ?̸???Ȥ???????ڲ?̬????????ʶ???洨??ѳ????????, ????Ϊ??ѳ????, ???Կ????˵?????????????ʽ, Ҳ?????ܹ????????ϵ???ȫ?ع??׳??Լ?, ??ȫ??Խ???????????????????????ڡ?????ͽ֮??????, ?洨????Ҫ????Ӧ????, ????ȫ?˷???????????????????????????????󡣵?Ȼ, ?洨?ڡ?????ͽ֮????????Ʒ????Ȼ??????д??ѳ??, ??????????????д????Ϊ????Ϊ???ϵ۶????׳??Լ??????????????֮?ϵ?ѳ?̡?????ͨ????ν??ѳ??, ??һŨ????һ??????????????ʽ, ???ֳ????߾????ϵı?????????ij?ʵ??

??????????ͽ֮?????????“??????????????, ???ݶ???, ??֮?????޾?֮??Ȥ, ?಻???λö?”????һ??ָ????֮????, ?????ص?????“?????޾?֮??Ȥ”??“?????????ڡ?????϶?ؼ???????”??????׿ִ???ڶ??ڽ̵?????, ?????Ź¶??????, ???Ų?????˽?İ????ݸ?????С˵??д??“????׿”???۵?һ???Լ???“ѳ??”??ʹ?????????Ĺ??¡?ѳ????Ϊ֮?????ܹ?????洨????Ȥ, ??????????“Ϊ??????????Ը???׵ľ???”?????־??????ǽ洨Ϊ??????????׷??ġ?[7] (P53) ??˱?????Ϊ, ?洨??֮?鴴???????ڵ???Ʒ??????ͽ֮????, ͨ???Ի???ͽΪ???Լ??ᶨ????????????????д, ???????߱??˶????????ϵ?????׷??

?????ġ??Ƿ??ڵ???Ʒ???۸̡?

????(һ) ???۸̡???Ʒ????

???????۸̡??ǽ洨??֮???ڴ??????? (1919??) 5?·????ڡ??³?????־?ϵ???Ʒ, ????2?????ڴ????ó????С˵????Ӱ???????ϡ???Ʒ????ʱ, ?ԡ????????????顷Ϊ????, ???۸̡??͡?????ء?һ?𷢱????????Ÿ?????Ϊ????????Ʒ????¼??

??????Ʒ??д????, ij?????????Ķ??ջƻ?, ?Ҵ?????????״??ƣ?͸к;뵡?е???????????ɺ???س??????г?, ?ڶ??ȳ????һ????????????????????????????, “?????Ծ???̹”???ҵ?ǰ??, һ??ʮ???????С???????˽?????“û?????Ե?ͷ???????????????Բ????”, ͨ?????????????, Χ???????????ɫΧ??, ??һ??????С????, ???????????ȳ????Ʊ???ֱɵij???, ???ݵ?????, ??????Ʊ??????Ʊ?????ֲ???????޴???, ???Ҳ??ܲ??е??????벻?졣????ȥ??????һС????, ???ó???ֽ????, ???DZ????ľ???Щƽ???¼?, ?޷?ο???????е????ơ?????ʻ????????ʱ??, ˫?????Ŷ?????С????, ???˳????????????ͻ????ʺ??׵???, ?Ͻ?????????ס??, ?????DZ???Ǻ?ô????????????𳵾???һ??ƶ????С????, С??????ӳ???̽?????????, ?ó??Ŷ???????, ????ǰ??Ϊǰȥ??Ӷ?˵??????еĵܵ????????????????ӡ??˷??龰, ????ؿ????ҵ???ͷ, ?ҷ????Լ??????????ز?????һ????????״?Ļ?Ȼ???ʵ?????, ??ע????С???С????Եܵ??ǵĹذ?, ʹ?ñ?ƣ?ͺ;뵡?????ŵ????˹???, ??????“ɲ?ǵĸж?”??

????(??) ???۸̡??Ĵ???????

????????ճؿ?????, “???۸̡????Խ洨??֮?????ʵ????Ϊ??Ķ?д?ɵ???Ʒ”??[8]???, һ????Ϊ????Ʒ?ǻ??????ߵ????鴴?????ɵ???д??????Ʒ??????, ???߲???ԭ?ⲻ????????????͸п?, ????ͨ??????ϸ?µĹ?˼, ????ص???????¼?, ?????ر?????????һ?档????Ʒ??, ????Ҳ?ܸ??ܵ????ߵ??ľ??仯?????????? (1919) ??, ???ڽ洨????, ????˵???䴴???ϵ?ͣ??֮??, ??Ϊ???????Ƶ?????, ?????;??е??????Ը?, ?Լ???????Χ??????״??ȫ??????????֮????????????????Ʒ?Ĺ?????ڼ????, ??????ƣ????뵡??????, ??????С????Ĵ?Ұ֮???????ж??????¿?ͷ??“???յĻƻ?”?????ߵ?????????ش?????һ??, ??????ȫƪ??д????????

????(??) ???۸̡???????

????1. ?ҵ?ƣ?ͺ;뵡??С????ĺ?????????

??????Ʒ??һ??ʼ, ͨ??“???յĻƻ?”, “?ҵ??Ժ?????һ????????״??ƣ?ͺ;뵡”??˵?????????Ƶ?????, ??????????Χ?谵?????ľ?ɫ??Ϊ???ơ?ͬʱ, ???????????߶Էֲ????Ƕ??Ȼ??????ȳ?Ʊ??, ??Ұ?ľٶ?, ??????????Ŵ???????С????????С???Ʒ??, ??д??“?۸?”??“??ԡ?ź???????”??“?۸?”, ???ֶ?“?۸?”????Ͷ?????????ɫ????д, Ϊ????˵?????ҵ?ƣ?ͺ;뵡?Լ?????Χ???˺??³??????֮???෴, С?????????Ϊ?????еĵܵ????쳣???к͹ذ???

????2. ???????ľ???֮??

????“?Ұ???????, ??δ??????????ӵ?һ??, ͷ?????Ŵ???, ???????Ƶر????۾?, ???????????”˵???????߶??????ľ???֮??, ???????߶???, ??д“?????е??г?”??“????С????”?Լ?“????ЩѰ????Ϣ??????”?ȶ??????????⡢?????????ĵ?????????????????????Ʒ?????һ??:“??ʱ, ?Ҳ???????ȴ????????״??ƣ?ͺ;뵡, ??????????????ı????????ĵ?????”, ?ڱ??????ܵ?ǿ?ҵĸж???ͬʱ, ??Ȼ???????Ҷ???, ??????????????????ı??????????ĵġ?

?????塢??????ͽ֮?????롶?۸̡??ıȽ?

????(һ) ??????Ʒ????ͬ??———“ɲ?ǵĸж?”

?????????ǡ?????ͽ֮???????ǡ??۸̡????????????ߵ????????????塣??????ͽ֮????ͨ??????׿??ѳ???????ֻ???ͽ???????ļᶨ, Ϊ?????????Գ?Խ????, ??ȫ?س??׵ع??׳??Լ???һ??????????, ?????Ǵ????????ڵĽ洨??׷??????????֮???롣?????۸̡???ͨ??????С?????Ϊ֮???еĵܵ??ǵĹذ??????ֳ????ߵĸж?, ???ָж?????????׷??????????֮????, ??????Ϊ??Χ??һ??ʹ?????߱???ƣ?ͺ;뵡, ???ն?????ʧȥ????, ???????֮????

????(??) ??????Ʒ?IJ?ͬ??

????1. С˵??IJ?ͬ

??????????ͽ֮??????ѡȡ???Ϊ??ʷ???, ?????۸̡????????Ϊ??ʵ??????ġ??ڽ洨??֮?鴴?????ĵij??ں͸???????, ??ʷ??ĵ???ƷҪ??????ʵ??????ĵ???Ʒ???ڵ?һ???ڶ?????????????¼????Ʒ, ??ʵ???Ϊ8ƪ, ????ʷ??Ĺ?15ƪ, ??????ʷ????ַ?Ϊ???????????5ƪ???????????3ƪ, ?????????????ȡ???ڽ???ʱ?????5ƪ??[9] (P129??130) ??¼?ˡ?????ͽ֮?????ĵ?????????????¼11ƪ??Ʒ, ????ʵ??????Ľ?Ϊ2ƪ[10] (P149) ???洨??֮?????Ž?????ʷ??????????ִ????⡣???ȶ??Ĵ?????????, ??ʱ?Ľ洨ר???ڴ???, ???ơ?????ͽ֮?????????????ŵ???Ʒ??[10] (P156)

?????????۸̡?????Ϊ???Խ洨?Լ???????????Ϊ??ĵ????????С??Ʒ??[11] (P159) “??”??һ???˹?ʼ???޷???ƣ?ͺ;뵡?н?ų?????????ԭ??, ??ǰ????????ȥ?????е??չ????˵????Ρ???????ͣ?Ͳ?ǰ?ȡ?

????2.??????ͽ֮?????ĵ????˳??롶?۸̡???һ?˳?

?????洨??֮?鱻?????¼?????????, ????д?????ɡ???ȡ??????ʷ??ĵġ?????ͽ֮?????趨?˰????ߵĽǶ?, ȥ????“????׿”??һ???˹?Ϊ???????ܲ????????¼???????С˵????չ????????, ???Լ???????ʶ?Ĺ????г?Ϊһ???Թ???, ???????ĸж?????һ???ľ??롣[10] (P157) ???ڴ????????ڵĽ洨, ??һ???Թ??ߵ?????, ?????׿͹۵ع۲??????˼??Ʒ??

?????????۸̡?ʹ?õ?һ?˳Ƶ?????????, ??ͬ??Ȼ????ʱ??, ???׾?ۈ????????????ֱ?Ӿ??顣?Ӷ????½洨?޷???Ϊ???????Թ???, ????Ȼ???侲??̬??Ͷ?봴?????С?

????????????, ????????ͽ֮?????????????ߴ????ĸ?????, ??ʱ??Ϊ??ͥ?????, ???ߵľ???״̬Ҳ?Ƚ??ȶ?, ?????????ϣ??, ??д???Ͻ洨Ҳϣ???ܹ?ȫ???ĵ?Ͷ?롣?????ڡ?????ͽ֮??????, ?洨?????ر??ֳ???????ȫ?˷????????????????????????????????ͨ???Ի???ͽΪ????Ϊ???ϵ۶??׳?????????????׵???д, ?????????????????ϵ?׷??, ?Լ?Ϊ???????????????ͨ??????ͽ????׿??ѳ???е?“ɲ?ǵĸж?”??ӳ???????߶??????Ҹ???????, ????ѳ????????׿???Ϸ???????????????׷?????Լ?????????׷??ͬ?????ҡ??????۸̡??????????ߴ??????Ƿ???????֮??, ??Χ??һ?ж???????˵???ǰ????????ġ?“?谵”“??????”???ⲿ????ʹ?????߱???ƣ?ͺ;뵡, ????????????????, ????Χ???˺??¸е??????Ȼ???ܵ?С???????Ϊ?????еĵܵ????쳣???к͹ذ?֮?ٶ???“ɲ?ǵĸж?”, ???Ƕ????߶???, ??????????????????ı??????????ĵġ?

????(??) ?Ӵ??????????????Ƿ???

????????2?? (1913) 9??, ?洨???붫????ѧӢ??רҵ, 1914??2??, ????????ۡ??ճؿ????ɸ??á???????һ??ɽ??ϲ??˾?????????????ᵺ??־?ۡ?ɽ???ʵ??˵????δ???????˼????, 5?·?????Ů???????꡷, ???ɽ????????䡶?洨??֮????????ۡ?һ????, ??Ϊ?洨?Ĵ????Ҳ??ʼ?ڴ?Ů???????꡷?ķ?????[12] (10) ??????ͬɽ????еĹ۵?, 1914??Ϊ?洨??֮?鴴?????ĵij??ڵ???ʼ???, ֱ??1917??Ϊ?洨??֮?鴴?????ĵij??ڡ???Ҫ??????Ʒ??:???????š??????ӡ??????ࡷ???־????ʯ?ڲ?????һ?졷?ȡ?????, ?????ڵ??ĴΡ???˼???????????ϵġ????ӡ?, ???????˺???, ʹ?洨һ?ٳ??????ڳ???, ???ͥ?ȸ??ӹ?ϵ, ?洨??֮?龭???˳?????ʧ??, Ϊ??ת??ʧ????????, ??ӳ???䴴????????????״????, ???????ӱ?ʧ????һ??ʵ, ?????ܴ???????С˵, ??????Ʒ????̨???????ִ?, ????ѡȡƽ????????ʷ??ġ?[13] (68)

????????6?? (1917) ĩ??????8 (1919) ???, Ϊ?洨?????ĸ?????, ??Ҫ??????Ʒ??:??֩??֮˿?????????䡷????????ɱ?ˡ???????ͽ֮????????Ұ?????ȡ??ڼ?, 1918??2?½??, 3??Ǩ??????????Сɽ??ۡ?ڿ?ʼ???µ?????, ͬʱ?Ӵ?????洨?Ӻ???????ѧУ??ְ, ??Ϊ????ÿ??????????ʽ??Ա??????4?°??????֮??, ????¥????ի????“?ҹ???”?Ҷ?, ר???ڴ????????ڽ洨?ڸ????ڵ?????״̬, ????ɽ???????Ϊ?ǽ洨ӭ????“һ???????Ҹ???ʱ??”??[12] (P13) ???ᆱһҲ??Ϊ“??ʱ???? (?洨) ???????Լ???Ϊ?????ҵ?????, ????????Ҳ??Ϊ???»?֮?󲻾?, Զ???????˷??յĸ????ǵļ?ͥ, ?????Ҹ??ľ???”??[10] (P155)

????????8?? (1919) 5?¡??۸̡??ķ?????1927??洨???????ս?Ϊ?䴴?????Ƿ??ڡ?????洨?ڡ??۸̡???????????“??????״??ƣ?ͺ;뵡, ????ѩǰ????հ?????”, ??Ҳ??????????״̬????ʵ??ӳ, ????“ƣ??”??“?뵡”??ԭ??, ?յغ??ڡ??洨??֮??<?۸?>??һ??ָ??, ???۸̡?????һ??????ǰ, 1919??3?½洨??????ԭ??????????ȥ??, ????Ҫ?е????չ˶?λ?????????ζ???????“ƣ??”, ????, ??????????ҵ????ڴ?????ͣ?͵ķ?????[11] (P160) ?˼?, 1921??????????ÿ?????????Ժ???۲?Ա???????????й???3??19?մӶ????????Ľ洨, ??Ϊ??ð???ò??ڴ??涺????һ?ܶ???ǰ???й?, 7??ĩ?????, ????״??????, ??ѧ??ʱ????ʼ????˥??, ??Ϊ???е?ƣ?͸??Ӷ?, ????????ҩ???޷???˯?????????˳?ֱ???½?????, ???????ͣ?͡??Ѻ?2?? (1927) ????ʧ??, סլȫ???ջ?, ???լ???о޶?ս?, ????????ᱻ????Ϊ?Լ??Ż?, ?????е????Թ???ɱ?????????, ?洨Ϊ????Ƿ?˵ĸ??????Ĵ?????, ??ʹ??˥?????????ء?[12] (P17) 7??24??, ?洨??????˵?????????????????İͱ?????ɱ?????Ƿ??ڵĴ?????Ʒ??:???۸̡??????????????ͯ???????֡???һ??ɵ?ϵ?һ?????ȡ?

????ʯ??͸?ڡ?<????ˤ???>?D?D??뤳?Ȥ????a?ȨD?D??һ?????????????????ۡ???Ʒ?ۤ??Ԥߡ??IJ???, ??Ϊ??????ͽ֮?????????ǽ洨???????????Ʒ?Ĵ???, ??????Ϊ?洨??ƪС˵?еĽ??????ܵ???????[14] (P68) ??Ϊ??????ͽ֮????????˵?ǽ洨???????ĸ????ڵ????????????۸̡??ǽ洨???ͥ??ϵ??????ԭ?????䴴????ʼ?????½????Ƶ???Ʒ?????߱Ƚϵ???ҪĿ??????, ̽???洨????????????δӸ????ڶ??????Ƿ???, ????????Ʒ?еı??֡?

????????????

??????Ϊ??????ѧ?¼????ɵ???Ҫ????, ?洨??֮?????´??????????Ʒ?????彫?洨????ѧ???????Ĵ??·?Ϊ????ʱ??:1917????ǰ???䴴??????, ??Ҫ????ʷ???С˵Ϊ??;1917??ĩ??1919??????䴴????????, ????????Ʒ??ʾ????????????????, ??????????׷??;1919?꡶???ӡ??ķ????Ժ????䴴???Ƿ???, ????????ƷҲ??ʾ?????????????˿־?Ͳ???, ?????ϳ???ƣ????뵡????????ͽ֮???????䴴???ĸ????ڵ???Ʒ, ͨ???Ի???ͽΪ???Լ??ᶨ????????????????д, ?????Լ??????????ϵ?????׷?󡣶??????Ƿ??ڵ???Ʒ???۸̡???ӳ?????߶???Χ??һ?б???ƣ?ͺ;뵡?????, ?????Լ?????????????????????ı??????????ġ???????????1927??7??24??, ???ڽ?????˼???????ϵ?ԭ??, ????“?Խ?????ĮȻ?IJ???”[8]???????Լ????ݶ???Ѥ?õ???????

?????ο?????

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    ??????.?洨??֮?顶????ͽ֮?????롶?۸̡??ıȽ??о?[J].?ϲ?ʦ??ѧԺѧ??,2019,40(03):112-116+120.
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